Monday, May 25, 2020

Health Issues in Africa - 1611 Words

South Africa’s has what medical authorities regard as to one of the healthiest climates, in the world, a tradition of playing sports and enjoying an active, outdoor lifestyle, access to plenty of fresh fruit, and vegetables, and some of the planet’s cleanest air, it’s people isn’t as healthy as might be imagined. South Africa major health public concerns are HIV/AIDS, malaria, smoking related disease, and tuberculosis, just to name a few of them but all of which affect the non-white population more than the white; apart form these. HIV/AIDS in Africa The rise of sickness in Africa today is mainly caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). AIDS is the number one†¦show more content†¦The second thing that can be done is to provide family members with HIV is to provide them with knowledge and resources - such as condoms that can help them stay uninfected. Children who have lost their parents due to AID may be in a particular need of support and care. Many organizations focus on providing care and support to AIDS orphan and other children made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS. This may involve in providing food and help with looking after siblings, or sick family members, and help to ensure that children are able to attend school. It is clear that much more needs to be done to help children and families affected by HIV/AID in resource-poor countries. Malaria in Africa Malaria is a life threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through bites of infected mosquitoes. In 2008, malaria caused nearly one million deaths, mostly among African children but malaria is preventable and curable. In 2008 Africa, there were 247 million cases of malaria and nearly one million deaths –mostly children under the age of five. Malaria is a disease caused by the blood parasite Plasmodium, which is transmitted by mosquitoes. Malaria is only transmitted through female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Most female mosquitoes are nocturnal feeders (that is they only bite at night). Malaria is particularly devastating in Africa, where it is a leading killer in children. In fact, there are 10 new cases of malariaShow MoreRelatedThe Epidemic Of South Africa1286 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract In the light of the recent Ebola outbreak, which has been imported from West Africa to the United States, it had become apparent that any infectious illness that occurs anywhere is not just the issue of the country in which it originated, but is indeed a global issue. This outbreak has also shone a light on the pressing health and health care issues in West Africa that contribute to the spread of illness. A lack of access to care, deficit in trained healthcare professionals, lack of preparednessRead More Africas Health Care Crisis Essay1529 Words   |  7 Pages The residents of Africa are suffering from preventable, treatable, and fatal diseases everyday at a higher rate compared to developed countries. The healthcare crisis in Africa is the primary cause of all these deaths, and includes inefficient healthcare systems. Consequently, Africans inefficient healthcare systems results in poor delivery of care and a shortage of health professionals. The healthcare crisis in Africa is a current issue impacting the lives of many Africans who dont have theRead MoreEssay on Poverty and Health in Somalia and Africa1413 Words   |  6 PagesAfrica has many issues going on, but the one issue in specific that I am going to talk about is the poverty and he alth of Somalia, and the whole of Africa. Somalia is the poorest country in the world and they have a very weak health system. Africa is also not doing very well economically. Africa is the poorest Continent in the world. Every single one of the top ten poorest countries is in Africa. First, off I am going to talk about the health system. Here are some quick facts about the healthRead MoreThe Backbone Of Any Health Care1503 Words   |  7 PagesThe backbone of any health care system in the world, is it’s health care professionals. The lack of health care professionals in developing countries due to their recruitment to developed countries is a global health issue which has negative impacts on the citizens of developing countries. The two respective authors Edward Mills and Gillian Brock argue about the abolition of recruitment of health workers from poor to rich nations and some of the global responsibilities that others countries haveRead MoreCLIMATE CHANGE: HEALTH CHALLENGES AND PREPAREDNESS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES800 Words   |  4 PagesTitle CLIMATE CHANGE: HEALTH CHALLENGES AND PREPAREDNESS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Developing nation’s slippery wrestling with many health problems for many years, it is very clear that good health is relating to long live. In the developing – countries have a lot of issues such as lack of clean drinking water, inadequate, poor quality of food and disease are the challenges facing developing countries.The present of these problem hampering health system in both Africa and Asia content. ThereforeRead MoreThe Future of South Africa1708 Words   |  7 PagesSouth Africa Predicting the future development of South Africa has become increasingly difficult due to radical changes that have occurred in the last few decades. These changes have left South Africa in a state of social and economical unrest. The largest of these changes was the abolishment of Apartheid. This allowed for black vote, and thus in 1994 a black government. This lead to black empowerment, which was subjugated for hundreds of years. This however created a new series of health, educationalRead MoreHiv / Aids And Aids1600 Words   |  7 PagesImmunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV/AIDS is a common and devastating concern in many households, and has been a longstanding health issue affecting sub Saharan Africa. However, it should also be noted that countries around the world are all at risk of HIV/AIDS infection through the migration of people to their region. HIV/AIDS is a much more prominent health concern characterizing sub Saharan Africa because of the treatment of women in society, extre me poverty resulting in the lack of education for people andRead MoreSouth Afric A Vast History Of Colonialism, Migration, And Migration1605 Words   |  7 PagesOverview: South Africa has a vast history of colonialism, migration and emigration, racial and gender segregation, epidemics, income inequality and extreme violence that has intrinsically affected and shaped the Healthcare System (South Africa Info, 2015). The apartheid is a major contributor of the problematic health system. Although, development in the public healthcare sector has occurred over the years, it still lacks adequate leadership and good management. Despite the policies initiated toRead MoreUnited States vs South Africa Healthcare1251 Words   |  6 PagesAFRICA VS UNITED STATES In our world each country has a set of standards to follow in order to establish health care insurance for people in different communities. The state contributes about 40% of all the expenditures on health while the public health sector delivers 80% of the population. Many resources are concentrated in the private health sector. These resources see to the health needs of the remaining 20% of the population. Public health consumes around 11% of the government’s total budgetRead MoreFocus question: The effects of sin taxable products on the South Africa’s economy and their impact1600 Words   |  7 Pagesthe South Africa’s economy and their impact on South Africa’s Socio Economic Issues Aims †¢ The demand of products within South Africa †¢ The contribution Pretoria has on sin tax †¢ Effects of these products on the economy †¢ Amount of debt caused by luxuries such as sin taxable products †¢ Legislations against sin taxable products being sold illegally. †¢ Effects of sin taxable products on South Africa’s socio economic issues. †¢ Pros and Cons of raising the sin tax in order to decrease the demand Introduction

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Theories of How Life Began on Earth - 1782 Words

Carolyn Godfrey English 101 Ms. Lazzo 10/26/2010 Theories of how Life on Earth began We certainly know that our universe exists, however, this knowledge alone has not satisfied mankind’s quest for further understanding. Our curiosity has led us to question our place in this universe and furthermore, the place of the universe itself. Throughout time we have asked ourselves questions such as: How did our universe began? How old is our universe? How did matter come to exist? Obviously, the search for clues has not ceased. Yet, after all this energy has been expanded, much of what we know is still only speculation. We have however, come a long way from the mystical beginnings of the study of cosmology and the origins of the universe. The†¦show more content†¦In a nutshell, as random genetic mutations occur within an organism’s genetic code, the beneficial mutations are preserved because they aid survival–a process known as â€Å"Natural Selection.† These beneficial mutations are passed on to the next generation. Overtime, beneficial mutations accumulate and the result is an entirely different organism, not just a variation of the original, but an entirely different creature. Darwin’s theory of evolution became a theory in crisis when advances were made in molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics over the past fifty years. We now know that there are in fact tens of thousands of irreducibly complex systems on the cellular level. Specified complexity pervades the microscopic biological world. Molecular biologist Michael Denton wrote. â€Å"Although the tiniest bacterial cells are incredibly small weighing less than 10 grams, each is in effect a veritable microminiaturized factory contains thousands of exquisitely designed pieces of intricate molecular machinery, made up together of one hundred thousand million atoms far more complicated than any machinery built by man and absolutely without parallel in the non-living world. We do not need a microscope to observe irreducible complexity. The eye, the ear and the heart are examples of irreducible complexity, though they were not recognized as such in Darwin’s day. Nevertheless, Darwin confessed, â€Å"To suppose that the eye with all itsShow MoreRelatedEssay on Popular Theories of the Origns of Life on Earth852 Words   |  4 PagesLife began in the Ocean The Big Bang theory is currently the most prevailing theory that explains the formation of Earth roughly 13 billion years ago. Substantial scientific research and theories are in agreement that when Earth was born, conditions on Earth was harsh. Due to nuclear fusion, Earth was very hot. One theory suggest that the heat of Earth evaporates the water which forms clouds and subsequently leads to rain. As Earth cooled, gravity traps the water collected and oceans started to formRead MoreEssay about The Origin of Life755 Words   |  4 PagesThe Origin of Life When considering the many theories involving â€Å"How life began† You must not consider a few main theories but a few main theory groups. Because there are literally hundreds of theories on this subject which can be grouped in to three main categories and then in to various sub categories. 1) Creation science This consists of about twelve theories that are based on the book Genesis all slightly varying in theirRead MoreSupporting Evolution through God1621 Words   |  7 Pagesheavens and the earth.† This Bible quote has created great controversy throughout the years amongst Christians and the theory of evolution. I have heard numerous times, â€Å"Believing evolution makes you an unbeliever of God.† The reason for such belief is because the Bible states in Genesis that God created the heavens, Earth, and all that resides on Earth within seven days. Our society has whole-heartedly believed in these scriptures for over 2,000 years, so the development of the theory of evolutionRead MoreSome people might know about the Earth, but what about the solar system? Earth Science and600 Words   |  3 PagesSome people might know about the Earth, but what about the solar system? Earth Science and Astronomy are similar in many ways and can be linked together. The basic fact that the Earth is a part of the solar system is the biggest key to it all . Through the study of our Earth, we are able to get a better perspective of how the universe works. So how did the Earth come to be? How did the evolutionary life cycle of the solar system start out and how did it bring us to where we are at today? ScientistsRead MoreAn Analysis of Davies The Origin of Life: When and Where Did it Begin?1324 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Davies and the Origins of Life The origin of life is indeed a fascinating mystery and is something that Davies explores in his article, The Origin of Life: When and Where Did it Begin? Davies begins his article by acknowledging that for a long time, more scientists attributed the beginning of life on earth as having evolved billions of years ago in a primordial soup at an unknown place on the surface of the earth. This has long been the assumption of scientists and one which has long gone unquestionedRead MoreComparative Essay1341 Words   |  6 Pages Tom Williams Introduction Many people today have their thoughts on how the Earth was created. Christians take a biblical perspective of how the universe was created by a creator. One thought that Christians believe is that God created the earth and accomplished this in six days and rested on the seventh day. This is the model of how a week is set up and the model that we currently follow. Jon W. Green states â€Å"though differences of opinion exist forRead MoreThe Big Bang Theory : The Chumash, Japanese, And The Chinese1081 Words   |  5 Pages Humans all around the world may be curious about how life started in the past. One might believe some type of god brought them here, while the average geologist would think the big bang theory began the outline of life. There are several stories on how the creation of life began, including: the Chumash, Japanese, and the Chinese. The Chumash creation story began with the indigenous population from Southern California. The Chumash story included the spotted woodpecker, the nephew of KaqunupenawaRead MoreThe Myth Of The Cherokee Indians940 Words   |  4 Pagesreligions in this world and many creation myths that accompany those religions. Each religion has its own unique viewpoint on how the world came to be. The Cherokee myth I have chosen is something that may seem outrageous to the outsider, but it is how the Cherokee Indians have viewed their creation for many years. The Cherokee believed that before their world as they know it began, it was just water. All the animals lived in a land called Galun’lati that was above the water (in the sky), but it was overcrowdedRead MoreComparative Essay: â€Å"Original Creation of the Earth (the Big Bang vs. Sis Day Creation)† Phsc 2101438 Words   |  6 PagesMarilynn Jones Liberty University PHSC 210-A17 Sonia Cooper Weeks Adjunct Instructor Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Old - Earth View III. Young - Earth View IV. Compare and Contrast V. Conclusion Introduction Christians today have a biblical principle and opinion of the universe existence. Christians believe that God created earth and that he accomplished that in only six days. Genesis 1 explains the creation and the interpretation is so utterly clear and one writer statesRead MoreComparative Essay Original Creation of the Earth1271 Words   |  6 PagesElements of Earth Science Comparative Essay Original Creation of the Earth Rhonda L. Carter 9 March 2014 PHSC 210-B13 LOU | | Introduction It should be easy to say that the Earth was created by a higher power. For a Christian this higher power is God. The Bible gives us the six day creation of the heavens and the Earth and all that dwell upon it. For anyone else, the higher power is some unknown power that science is still trying to figure out. There are a lot of theories in science about

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about What Can Regular Fitness Do For You - 683 Words

Medical experts vindicate that following a regular fitness program is one of the most important things people can do to improve their health and prevent disease. Exercising makes the heart stronger and develop into a more efficient muscle. What else can regular fitness do for you? Improves Mental Focus Exercise improves your mental focus. Experts say that regular exercise helps keep your brain sharp by improving your focus and concentration. Studies show exercising decreases the chance of Alzheimers disease. Even low impact exercises can help with boosting your mood. Studies show exercise gives you an uplifting and heightened feeling. This is the reason you are not advised to exercise before bed. Reduce Your Chances of Having a†¦show more content†¦Exercise has actually been shown to build bone tissue and can help reverse the effects of osteoporosis. Staying on an active exercise routine can also prevent Type II Diabetes or help control your blood sugar levels if you already have the disease. Increases Energy and Libido A regular fitness routine like aerobics, yoga, or weight lifting can improve the sex drive in both men and women. Men who exercise on a regular basis are less likely to have erectile dysfunction. Studies show when you exercise regularly you develop an increased sexual drive. Many couples find it beneficial to work out together. Improves Self Esteem Exercise is a fantastic way to help improve your self esteem. Exercising helps a person feel better inside and out. Keep in mind that exercising should be fun and not a chore. Choose exercises you enjoy. Exercising as little as 30 minutes a day has been proven to have an effect on a person who has a poor body image. Helps Maintain a Healthy Weight When you exercise, you are burning off calories. The more intense your workout is, the more calories you will burn off. You can do little things to help improve your physical health. For example, take the stairs instead of the elevator. You can park further away from the entrance when you go shopping. Instead of watching the TV, go for a walk. Helps Relieve Stress One of the best ways to relieve stress is toShow MoreRelatedWhy do you think it is important to set fitness goals for yourself and strive towards a high level1300 Words   |  6 PagesWhy do you think it is important to set fitness goals for yourself and strive towards a high level of personal fitness? --Fitness is beneficial for everyone in the long run. Doing fitness will decrease the chance of getting diseases, and it also helps us to build up our body, which is important to adolescents. Through fitness, we can sustain our body in a well-balanced condition by being both physically fit and healthy. 2. In what ways were you successful or unsuccessful in your program to increaseRead MoreThe Health Benefits Of Physical Activity988 Words   |  4 Pages There are many benefits of fitness which are hard to ignore and extend well beyond ones weight. Regular physical activity can help reduce risk for numerous ailments and health conditions and help to improve one’s overall quality of life. Enhanced physique often comes along with a good fitness schedule, keeping one motivated. Fitness is the condition of being physically fit and healthy, however becoming active, staying active or boosting your level of physical activity is difficult for some toRead MoreFinal Exam : Phe 101 Essay1241 Words   |  5 PagesFinal Exam : PHE 101 –Advanced Fitness 1. Assess your Fitness level prior to coming to VWIL and currently. Use your SET scores, PFT scores and any other fitness testing as documentation. Comment on all of the components of Fitness – Cardiorespiratory Endurance, Flexibility, Muscular Strength and Endurance and Body Composition. There are five components to fitness: body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, muscle strength, and muscle endurance. Body composition is the amountRead MoreThe Importance Of Regular Exercise With Exercise Essay1344 Words   |  6 PagesBeing fit can give you immediate benefit of improved vigour, and it may offer long-term benefits as well. # Gain More Energy. As you exercise regularly, your entire body becomes more efficient. Your heart begins to pump more blood with each beat and to beat fewer times each minute. Your body develops the ability to make more oxygen available to your cells. That means more energy - greater productivity, more stamina, and less fatigue. # Feel Good. Exercise makes you feel good, both physically andRead MoreWhat It Means to Live An Active and Healthy Lifestyle1246 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ What It Means To Live an Active and Healthy Lifestyle By James Smallhorn-West What does it mean to be active and healthy? Does it just mean that you have good health? Did you know that on average, only 13% of men are physically fit, but 69% of men believe that they are physically fit? It is very important to stay in shape. Living and active and healthy lifestyle is beneficial in many ways to not only yourself but to those around you. Being active and healthy doesRead MoreThe Canadian Fitness And Lifestyle Research Institute1358 Words   |  6 Pagesstudies have shown that employees, who get regular exercise, have better performance on the job. From employees’ point of view, one of the competitive benefits that companies are offering is a full-service, on-site fitness facilities for their employees. While this certainly is significant, it may not be enough, for employers to begin installing onsite fitness center. However, there are a number of other reasons that the investment of onsite fitness center can benefit both employees of the company, andRead M oreEvaluation Of An Investment Of Onsite Fitness Service1513 Words   |  7 PagesINTRODUCTION The purpose of this research is to study if the investment of onsite fitness service is worthy to do and how the on-site fitness center can benefit employee and employer, both in the short term (the same day), and in the long term (for years and decades). Purpose and scope Everyone wants to get high productivity and efficiency in completing their work. There are lots of studies have shown that employees, who get regular exercise, have better performance on the job. From employees’ point of viewRead MoreHealthy Aging917 Words   |  4 Pagesan active lifestyle is more important than ever. Regular exercise helps seniors maintain health, boost energy, and improve confidence. The good news is, no matter your age, your health, or your fitness level, you can benefit from moving more. Whether you are generally healthy or are managing an illness, there are big and small ways to get more active and boost your fitness level. Exercise is extremely important for everyone, no matter what age you are. However for seniors, it becomes even moreRead MoreExercise For Today s Youth1552 Words   |  7 Pagesbenefit them in the long term I believe that physical fitness is very important regarding the overall health of adolescents. Throughout the growing years of teens, our bodies are always changing and with these changes which are both emotional well as physical, our bodies require more and more activity, allowing the body to burn energy along with extra calories. Although many people may feel that concerns relating to physical fitness in adolescents should be the absolute responsibility of parentsRead MoreI Am A Not A Nutritionist, Trainer, Or A Medical Professional1648 Words   |  7 Pagesam a not a nutritionist, trainer, or a medical professional. You should always consult with a professional before undertaking any new exercise regimen or substantive change in diet. What follows is not medical, fitness or nutritional advise. It should be read for inspirational purposes only. Please do not go to the gym, hurt yourself and then sue me. Seriously, I cannot stress this enough. I am not giving you professional medical, fitness or nutritional advice. End legal ass covering. There is this

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Wireless Sensor Networks Design And Components

Question: Describe about the Wireless Sensor Networks,Design And Components? Answer: Introduction Wireless sensors are an efficient information technology and communication tools used for monitoring and communication applications. With the emergence of mobile technologies, internet of things etc. these wireless sensors and wireless sensor networks or WSNs have become an important part of networks and communication technologies today. Essentially wireless area networks are based on some many- tiny principle. That is, there are hundreds and thousands of tiny and inexpensive devices, called sensors that helps in sensing the environment, collect data from environment, compute the data and processes the same, finally can communicate with other devices. In a wireless sensor network, there are such tiny devices that forms a network and communicate with each other through exchanging information. Hence, a wireless sensor network is also specially distributed and autonomous network of sensors. In practice, such networks are being used in monitoring different environment and its attributes. For example, it can work to monitor and collect information about sound, temperature, pressure etc. from an environment. Data is transmitted through the co- operating sensors in the network. In a WSN, usually there is a central and main location. Sensors collect data and sends to that main location. Advancement of modern communication and networking technology has made the WSNs more efficient and applicable in diverse range of applications. Usually modern networks work in a bi- directional way. Thus, it has made the process of sending control information to the sensors in an easy way. Surveillance operations in military was the inception point for sensor based network, but now it is being used in education to health sector everywhere. Emergence of Internet of things has made the application of wireless sensor network beyond the horizon. It is also being used successfully in machinery, factories and industrial plants for various monitoring purposes. (Dargie Poellabauer, 2010) Wireless Sensor Networks: Design And Components The integral part of any wireless sensor network are the nodes or the sensors. There can be thousands of nodes in a wireless sensor network. Each of such wireless sensor or node has more than one parts. Those are, An internal antenna and an external antenna. A connection between the internal and external antennas. A radio transceiver having these antennas. A microcontroller An interfacing electronic circuit. An energy source. It can be a simple battery or some energy harvesting mechanism in some embedded form. The size of the sensor nodes can vary greatly, there may be a small box sized sensor or some tiny one like grain of dust. The cost of the nodes also vary greatly. But cost factor is dependent on the complexity of the nodes than the sizes of the nodes. (Hailing, et al., 2005) Depending on the size and complexity of the nodes there are other factors to consider, like energy consumption, bandwidth requirement etc. A WSN will have some topology. The topology can be a star topology or it may be some multi hop mesh topology. In practice, advanced multi hop topologies are widely used. Data propagates through such networks by flooding or routing techniques. Wireless Sensor Network: Platforms Sensors work on some platform designed by specific hardware and software. Building this platform efficiently determines the efficiency of the network. Hardware Part Building the hardware based platform for a WSN is a challenging task. There are two main things to consider, the platform should be low cost and should have tiny sensors. There are several vendors who produces such platform. Researches are going on to develop robust and tiny platforms. There should be low power consumption by the hardware part. Thus, low power consuming technologies for communication and data collections should be considered for the respective hardware solutions. Some applications require, gateways for some LAN or WAN of these wireless sensors. Internet consists of different kinds of networks, when a WSN gets connected to the Internet it needs to get connected with different types of networks. Thus, it will require some bridging technique for communicating with other types of networks efficiently. Gateways plays the role of the bridges. These gateways also helps in storing data into some central server location. (Karl Willig, 2007) Software Part Again the challenge is energy consumptions. The application and the software platform used in the WSNs should consume least amount of power. As there are diverse range of applications of WSNs, so, the applications and the software interfaces depend the applications. For example, WSNs are used in hostile or remote regions. These applications are ad hoc type by nature. The protocols and algorithms used in such networks should address the following factors, Increased span of lifetime. Self-configuration mode Fault tolerance Robustness In general maximizing the lifetime and reducing the energy consumptions are the key factors to be considered. In the ad hoc applications, self-configuration mode helps the devices to automatically conserve power, switching of the radio transmitters and receiver in idle mode etc. All these in turn helps in saving energy and maximizing the lifetime. Operating system This is an important software part of the nodes. The operating system of the nodes is a simpler and general purpose OS. Those are similar to the embedded operating systems. There are two reasons behind taking this approach. Those are, There is certain aim of building and using some wireless sensor network. Thus the platform are ore oriented towards the aim rather than being a general platform. In any case, the platform should be low power consuming and low cost. This can be done by use of low power consuming microcontrollers and various mechanisms like virtual memory etc. These helps in building low power consuming and low cost operating system based platforms. Some examples of OS used in WSNs are uC OS, eCOS etc. there are always some real time properties with such OS. Another example is TinyOS, this is a special kind of OS for WSNs. There are event driven programming used for this OS. Multi- threading is also used here. Other than that there are OS like, LintOS, Contiki, RIOT etc. Online Platform for Collaborative Sensor Data Management Online database management platforms are used for sensors and WSNs also. The owners of the sensors are needed to register to the platforms and feed data from their senso0r enabled devices to the online database for storage and future retrieval. Developers can build their applications based on such huge repository of data. Some examples are Wikisensing, Xively etc. These platforms are useful and helps collaboration between the users. These are like huge data repositories holding data sets from diverse and different kind of sources. The architecture of such platforms include the following components. Interfaces and APIs for users and online collaborators. The middleware tier containing the business logic for sensor data management. A backend storage model for data storage and retrieval. The data volumes will be bigger. Thus the storage system should be designed and developed in the way for handling such workload and requests. Research Directions and Challenges Dynamics of the sensor networks is a real challenge. Eventually, with time the node of the sensor networks will fail. The reason behind such failures can be running out of power, overheating, damaged by wind, sun heat etc., there may be bugs in the software. When the nodes are installed on some fixed position, still there are chances that the quality of radio frequency range may not be suitable and the network topologies of the sensor networks will change. Such changes are sue to the changes in the environment and harder to predict. Compared to the WSNs, the larger scale traditional networks may be changing of configuration of a network will need changes by a huge number of people. Because a huge number of people are there behind the network. On the contrary, in case of WSN. There may be only one single person behind more than one sensors. Thus the WSNs are supposed to be self-configuring and independent of the control given by the user. WSNs are also very adaptive to the environmental changes. These features poses several challenges in researches of the WSNs. Some of the challenges in the WSNs related researches are, (Elson Estrin, 2004) Multi-tier Architecture According to Moores law, the hardware part of the sensors will go smaller and cheaper with time, and the sensors will become more powerful in terms of performance. But more specifically, for WSNs the nodes are needed to be more durable, cheaper, energy efficient and smaller. No matter how smaller the nodes be, the size of the WSNs will be bigger and there will be multi-tier architecture. This multi-tier architecture based platform is also needed to be faster, cheaper, energy efficient and more capable. The localized algorithms running on the hardware platforms are supposed to run in heterogeneous hardware setups. In practice the networks are used today, are mostly two or three tiered architecture based networks. The highest numbered tiers are usually connected to the internet. But sensor networks are a bit different. Sensor networks can merge to the Internet, other types of traditional networks, server based computing environment etc. But on the smallest side of the network, there will be sensor based devices like motes etc. These motes are similar to nodes but have minimal storage and computing capabilities. In a typical multi-tier architecture of WSN, on the one side there are such smallest nodes, and on the other end there is usually internet, in between there will be some high performing computers. This is different than traditional multi-tier client server architecture. (Elson Estrin, 2004) In- Network Processing and Routing through WSNs In-network processing and routing are closely related in case of WSNs. Routing is a common issue or factor for any network and specially with larger, multi-hop networks. In a multi-hop network, any two nodes are not directly connected, rather those are connected through several other intermediate nodes. WSNs are similar to the Internet in this case. But the routing process between two cases have significant differences. In case of Internet, the goal is end to end delivery of packets in the best possible way. But in the case of a WSN, the focus in on in network processing capabilities of the network. The nodes do not only route the information, those also contribute to the processing of information. An example of such scenario is, Directed Diffusion algorithm used in routing in WSNs. Like any other traditional routing protocol. It provides end to end delivery of information in addition to in-network processing through a data centric approach. Data is generated from the sensor nodes and can be identified by some pair of values and attributes. There are two associated concepts here, called, sink and source. Sink is the node that input in interest to the network and requests some data. Source is a node that sends data to the sink or redirect the flow of information to the sink according to the interests of the sink. Between a source and a sink, there will be number of intermediate nodes. The node will inspect the flow before sending it toward the sink or to the next hop. In this way, application specific WSNs are programmed. This is an additional load to the application developer to build and program the nodes in such ways. It is different than an abstraction and needs explicit programming. (Elson Estrin, 2004) Automatic time synchronization and localization Collaboration among the sensors is very important for a WSN. A sensor can fetch very little information about some environment at a time. Only that single piece of information may not give any useful information. But when information are collected from several similar sensors, then the big picture is created. The information about the whole environment becomes available. Thus the combined knowledge from all sensors of a WSNs is necessary. But each sensor will have different geographic locations. Automatic localization of the nodes become useful in such contexts. Also, there are different time zones depending on geographic location. When some sensor changes it location or just deployed in some WSN, then it should automatically get adjusted with the time and locality. (Mao, et al., 2007) There are several ad hoc, automated localization schemes developed by several researchers. Distributed Signal Processing Data fusion is the process of integrating different signals from different and heterogeneous sensors. There are several applications of data fusion. For example, in noise reduction, source coding, process control, source localization etc. There have been studies to implement data fusion into WSNs. But it needs actually more than data fusion, it needs centralized sensor fusion. Centralized sensor fusion is the process of gathering geographically separated and distributed sensors that are controlled by and connected to some central processor. On the other hand, WSNs violates several other characteristics of centralized processing system. For example, as already discussed, the nodes in a WSN have their own time and locality synchronization, own data processing capabilities. Due to these contradictory characteristic, it is difficult to implement data fusion and related signal processing technologies in WSNs. Search, Retrieval and Storage A larger volume of raw data is generated from a WSN. This is a continuous and streaming form of live data. In practice, there is a larger database associated to a WSN. It stores and aggregates data from various sensor nodes. There are several challenges in storing, retrieval and searching of an information in this larger database that stores live streaming of data. Privacy and Security Privacy and security in WSN is very important. There are several difficulties to implement and ensure security and privacy in this case. It is easy to damage or alter sensors. Even attacker can fool a sensor and the sensor will collect inaccurate or fake data from the environment. Also, stealing raw information getting generated from the sensors is easier. Implementation of security software on the nodes is difficult as those are resource and energy consuming. Wireless sensor networks are dependent on wireless data transmission. There are chances of eavesdropping from the network. On the other hand implementation of encryption techniques will pose heavy workload on the nodes because implementation of encryption techniques for the wireless network will require in-network processing and such techniques are time and energy consuming. Thus, data on the WSNs are highly insecure. It will also have privacy issues. As WSNs are installed for monitoring purposes, it collects data about individuals and share those data. These data may raise privacy questions. (Perrig, et al., 2004) Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks There are various and diverse range of application or wireless sensor networks in practice. Some of the significant applications are, Monitoring of environment There are different kinds of monitoring applications of WSNs. Initially WSNs were used for monitoring in different military tasks. Some of the widely used monitoring tasks that are being done by WSNs are, Monitoring an area This is a common application where WSNs are used heavily. The deployment of WSN is done for some specified region from where some phenomenon is needed to be monitored. Military monitoring processes using WSN falls into this category, here WSN can be used to monitor intrusion of enemies into some region. Other than that these kind of application of WSNs used in oil or gas pipelines as some geo fencing technique. In healthcare industry In healthcare industry technology is being used in various ways. In terms of WSNs, there are two types of medical devices. Those are implanted devices and wearable devices. Implanted medical devices are implanted on inserted into human bodies. On the other hand, wearable devices are wore by the human and the devices are touched or connected to the surface of human bodies. In healthcare, both of these devices are becoming popular and widely used for monitoring physical conditions of patients by measurement of positions, locations of the patient, blood pressure, heart beats, pulse rate etc. The related concept is body area network, it helps in collecting information about persons fitness, health, energy levels etc. (Lo, et al., 2005) Industrial monitoring There are different sub areas under industrial monitoring using WSNs. These techniques and implementation are used in manufacturing plants or other heavy industrial sectors. WSNs are used for monitoring the status of the machineries. These WSNs are programmed to monitor the machineries based on some predefined CBM or Condition Based Maintenance mechanisms. The process is becoming popular as it reduces the cost of maintenance and helps to add more functionalities to the processes. There are various situations where, the plants cannot be monitored by humans or by wired monitoring system, these wireless sensor based monitoring networks helps to overcome such difficulties. (Xu, et al., 2004) There are bigger civil infrastructure that may need monitoring for getting updates about its status. There may be some geo-physical application and process of data collection over some pre-defined time frame. Data logging through infrared sensors can be useful in this context. (Krishna, et al., 2006) One of the widely used application of WSNs is data collection from monitoring some environment. The complexity of the work cab vary greatly. The process can be simple enough to collect data from the room environment to collecting statistical information about some complex system. An important advantage of using WSNs in data collection from environment is that these networks and sensors are capable of capturing live and streaming data. Water management through WSNs is an important research topic these days. It helps in quality checking and management of surface water and water from deeper levels of sea, river etc. It has significant importance to water management, water pollution management etc. Both of the animals and humans will be beneficial from this kind of application of WSNs. It is also useful for waste water management. Sensing Earth surface or Earthquakes Environmental monitoring like earth surface monitoring is another application of WSNs. It includes monitoring processes for various pollution control, disaster management etc. Some example of such controlling are, Monitoring for air pollution is an area where WSNs are used. In various cities around the world this process in being used for monitoring the levels and concentration of poisonous and harmful gases in the air. One of the advantage of WSN over wired monitoring systems is the ad hoc nature and the wireless communication technologies. The mobility of the sensors help to collect data from all nearby places. As already said, water quality management and monitoring is an example of WSNs. In this process WSNs are used for monitoring various rivers, dams, oceans, lakes etc. along with water preserved in underground areas. It helps to create water status map irrespective of manual kind of data retrieval process. The accuracy in the map are ensured by use of the distrusted and difficult cases. Natural disasters like landslide can be detected by a WSN monitoring process. Before or during there will be changes in the climate like slight landslide etc. WSN can capture those details through data gathering. Thus, it is possible to detect such occurrences in advance and taking required countermeasures as soon as possible. Forest fire is another case that is a destroying natural and environmental event. WSN can help to detect such case in advance when there is a slight example of the same, like the phase just before starting of the forest fire. This is possible by tracking environmental metrics like humidity, temperature etc. Other type of natural disasters like Tsunami etc. can also be detected or predicted through monitoring by WSNs. The WSNs deployed for water management can also be used for such cases. WSNs are used or getting planned to use in crowdsourcing concept. For example, for finding out chances of terrorism by deploying chemical agent sensors in mobile phones of common people. Characteristics of WSN Wireless Sensor Networks cannot be classified in any group of traditional networks. These are a different kind by itself. There are several key characteristics of WSNs. The significant ones are discussed below, The nodes of a WSN has constraints on power consumption or battery use or energy harvesting. The nodes are resilient that is those are capable of coping up consequences of node failure. The nodes have mobility feature. It is easier to deploy a larger scale network through WSN. The scalability of WSNs are better than traditional networks. The nodes and WSN has the capability of withstanding difficult environmental situations. These kind of networks are easier to use. The design of a WSN has some cross layer architecture. In research, the cross layered architecture of WSNs have become an important part of study. As there were several problems with the traditional laying approach. The nodes of a WSN can be heterogeneous. Cross Layered Architecture of WSNs There are several issues with traditional layered approach. Compared to that cross layered architecture have given several advantages. The problem with traditional approaches are, In this approach, sharing of information among different layers is difficult. Thus no layer will have all information. The optimization of the whole network is not guaranteed in this approach. This is not adaptive to the changes in the environment. There will be interferences among different kind of users, environments etc. thus there will be issues like fading, access conflicts etc. in a WSN. Traditional approach in layering cannot address this issues effectively as those are designed for wired networks. On the contrary, cross layered approach in WSNs has the following benefits. It can help in optimization of the modulation. Thus there will be improves performance of the network while transmission of data in terms of data rate, QoS or Quality of Service, energy consumption etc. Very basic and inexpensive computers can be used for WSNs. A processing unit with limited memory and computing power can serve well. However the base stations needs to have some better computing power as those will act as gateways to the Internet as well. There will also be some routing options in such networks. WSN and Simulation The complex behavior of a WSN can be simulated by agent based modeling and simulation process. This is originally based on a concept called social simulation. Some simulations like OPNET, WSNet, NS2, WSIM, NetSIM etc. can simulate some wireless sensor networks effectively. Distributed Wireless Sensor Network In a centralized network mode, there is a central node that controls and monitors the network and communicate with the nodes. Now, if this central node fails, then the whole network will shut down and collapse. Thus reliability in such network is questionable. To deal with the issue, some distributed control can be introduced in such network, without changing the other constraints of the network. In distributed wireless sensor network, this process is adopted. The distributed control architecture in WSN are useful because of the following facts, The sensor nodes are very prone to failure. The distributed control architecture will help to collect more data in a better way. If the central node fails then the nodes in the distributed control will have backup of data from the network. Thus the reliability of the network will be improved. Apart from the distributed control, the sensors in a WSN are self-organizing. Web, WSN and Data integration A central base station stores data collected by the sensors in a WSN. This data is stored in some numerical for. There are some standards of these data. The standards are posed by OGC or Open Geospatial Consortium. According to those standards, the interoperability of encodings of the metadata and interfaces enables and helps the heterogeneous sensors to be integrated. Also this helps to integrate the same with the Internet. Any individual can control or monitor some WSN through some web browser. Internet of Things IoT or Internet of Things is a new concept related to the Internet and WSNs. It is considered to be the future of the internet. It is a world wide web of interconnected, uniquely addressable objects, based on some communication rules and protocols. Other than computers, these objects can be smart phones, smart devices, any RFID or Radio Frequency ID tag based device. These objects are highly dynamic and mobile. Use of WSN in the Internet of Things can open up a new dimension of internetworking. Studies and researches are going on focusing in this topic. Still there are lots of issues and challenges to solve. (Christin, et al., 2009) Conclusion In this report, it has discussed about wireless sensors networks in details. After a brief introductory section there are detailed discussions on the architecture, component etc. of WSN. Then the focus has been given on several challenges in the researches on WSNs. The report also discussed the application, characteristics of WSNs in different contexts. There are discussions on related topics also like simulation of WSN, web integration, distributed WSN, Internet of things and WSN etc. References Christin, D. et al., 2009. Wireless sensor networks and the internet of things: selected challenges. Proceedings of the 8th GI/ITG KuVS Fachgesprch Drahtlose Sensornetze, pp. 31-34. Dargie, W. Poellabauer, C., 2010. Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks. s.l.:John Wiley Sons. Elson, J. Estrin, D., 2004. Sensor Networks: A Bridge to the Physical World. In: Wireless Sensor Networks. s.l.:Springer , pp. 3-20. Hailing, C. L. J. et al., 2005. Overview of Wireless Sensor Networks.. Journal of Computer Research and Development , 1(021). Karl, H. Willig, A., 2007. Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks. s.l.:John Wiley Sons. Krishna, C. et al., 2006. Monitoring civil structures with a wireless sensor network.. Internet Computing, 10(2), pp. 26-34. Lo, B. P., Thiemjarus, S., King, R. Yang, G.-Z., 2005. Body sensor networka wireless sensor platform for pervasive healthcare monitoring, s.l.: s.n. Mao, G., Fidan, B. Anderson, B. D., 2007. Wireless sensor network localization techniques.. Computer Networks, 51(10), pp. 2529-2553. Perrig, A., Stankovic, J. Wagner, D., 2004. Security in wireless sensor networks.. Communications of the ACM , 47(6), pp. 53-57. Xu, N. et al., 2004. A wireless sensor network for structural monitoring.. Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Embedded networked sensor systems, pp. 13-24.

Monday, April 6, 2020

Effects Of Web On Business Essays - E-commerce,

Effects Of Web On Business Effects of the Web on Business The Internet will greatly alter the structure and operation of all industries. For the management of any existing business the central question is not whether the Internet will be relevant to your business, but rather what will we need to do to profit from that change ( ?The Internet? ). The Internet is evolving many aspects of business and it creates many new business opportunities. It is developing what is called the ?New Business Environment?, because it changes the way products are developed, distributed, marketed, sold, and serviced ( ?Business on the? ). In theory, doing business over the Internet with consumers should be ideal however, many people are not comfortable with it yet. It will take a little while before most people are completely at ease and order products. First off, the Internet will provide many capabilities that will be very beneficial to a business. Some of the benefits include E-mail, Mailing Lists, UseNet, Telnet, FTP, Gopher, and of course the World Wide Web. All of these are a way to keep you informed and in touch with business associates and customers anywhere in the world ( ?What can the? ). With an Intranet in place you've got an infrastructure for group applications, you don't need to install software on everyone's PC, they can just use their Web browser and while the main costs are in employee time, the cost of software has dropped significantly ( ?Put Your Own? ). The effects of the Internet will take a decade or more to generally replace existing patterns of business. The Internet and its strategic impact are not technological issues, they are business ones ( ?The Internet? ). Executives are likely to carry responsibility for whether their organization ultimately prospers or perishes in an Internet impacted world. The particular impact will differ between industries, so you need to identify the likely form of impact it will have on your industry and adopt appropriate strategies. A few threats are when using the Internet, competitors become relatively more effective, e.g. reducing costs, improving service and increasing sales impact. Also, some important customers or suppliers may have migrated exclusively to the Internet and are inaccessible in any other way. Some firms redefine the industry in a very fundamental way that threatens all existing competitors ( ?The Internet? ). With the advent of the Internet, it has dramatically improved operational and sales effectiveness in numerous different applications. A few such areas are, on-line stockbrokers: such as E*Trade and Ceres, on-line travel agents, banks and other financial services: such as on-line banking systems, and insurance and fund management. Right now, there are many companies whose outreach is global such as Amazon.com and CD Now, soon all of the above areas will be global ( Daring ). Another area of the business environment that will be significantly changed due to the Internet are small firms, especially ones who wish to export. The Internet can relatively easily give small firms access to international markets, and engage in electric commerce ( Cragg ). However, not much is known about the use of the Internet by small firms, mainly because it is such a new method. An example of such an idea was taken advantage of by Elizabeth Botham & Sons Bakery. The bakery is located in a small town called Whitby in North Yorkshire and business is tough because it is geographically restricting and it is based in a very seasonable town. In order to do business and keep their staff hired year around the manager, Mike Jarman turned to the Internet. He found a company called Octagon Ltd., which helped him get started. Since going on the Web in 1995, the company has had over 25,000 potential customers visit the site and receives a dozen hefty orders a week ( ?Yorkshire Bakery? ). The Web is a great distribution tool, the information you place on your Web site can be accessed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The Web can save you time and money in information distribution over traditional mail and printing methods ( Daring ). Rather than reading a static advertisement, your customers can go directly to

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Free Essays on Guadalcanal Campain

In August 1942 a powerful fleet comprising 48 combat ships, including the US Aircraft Carriers Wasp, Saratoga and Enterprise and the new battleship North Carolina, began to assemble for the invasion of the Solomon Islands. The Royal Australian Navy was represented by the cruisers Australia (Captain H. B. Farncomb); Canberra (Captain F. E. Getting and Hobart (Captain H. A. Showers). Commanding the Australian cruisers and five American cruisers was Rear-Admiral Victor Crutchley RN, who in June had succeeded the Australian born Rear-Admiral Crace RN, as the commander of the Australian Squadron. He was responsible for the safe arrival in the combat area of the troopships carrying the assault force of some 16000 US marines. Australian ground forces were at this time busy holding the Japs back on the Kokoda Trek in New Guinea. The invaders achieved complete surprise as they approached the shores of Guadalcanal over a smooth sea and under a clear sky. HMAS Australia and USS Quincy opened fire at 6.13 a.rn. and at 6.23 a.m. and shortly afterwards at dawn on 7 August, the first waves of US Marines landed at Guadalcanal and Tulagi, and soon secured the sites. The first wave of marines went ashore near Lunga Point without opposition and next day the marines occupied the airstrip. Opposition at Tulagi was strong but was soon crushed The Japanese reaction was immediate. Hastily organising a surface strike force of seven cruisers and a destroyer, they began to attack the Allied force without delay. It was a bold decision as it involved steaming in broad daylight down the length of 'The Slot' between the Solomons. Incredibly, the sole sighting of the approaching enemy force - by an RAAF Catalina - was not passed on to Allied leaders. The Americans had split their forces into three groups. Two were guarding the channels on either side of Savo Island. AUSTRALIA in company with CANBERRA, CHICAGO and two destroyers, patrolled the southern channel, while... Free Essays on Guadalcanal Campain Free Essays on Guadalcanal Campain In August 1942 a powerful fleet comprising 48 combat ships, including the US Aircraft Carriers Wasp, Saratoga and Enterprise and the new battleship North Carolina, began to assemble for the invasion of the Solomon Islands. The Royal Australian Navy was represented by the cruisers Australia (Captain H. B. Farncomb); Canberra (Captain F. E. Getting and Hobart (Captain H. A. Showers). Commanding the Australian cruisers and five American cruisers was Rear-Admiral Victor Crutchley RN, who in June had succeeded the Australian born Rear-Admiral Crace RN, as the commander of the Australian Squadron. He was responsible for the safe arrival in the combat area of the troopships carrying the assault force of some 16000 US marines. Australian ground forces were at this time busy holding the Japs back on the Kokoda Trek in New Guinea. The invaders achieved complete surprise as they approached the shores of Guadalcanal over a smooth sea and under a clear sky. HMAS Australia and USS Quincy opened fire at 6.13 a.rn. and at 6.23 a.m. and shortly afterwards at dawn on 7 August, the first waves of US Marines landed at Guadalcanal and Tulagi, and soon secured the sites. The first wave of marines went ashore near Lunga Point without opposition and next day the marines occupied the airstrip. Opposition at Tulagi was strong but was soon crushed The Japanese reaction was immediate. Hastily organising a surface strike force of seven cruisers and a destroyer, they began to attack the Allied force without delay. It was a bold decision as it involved steaming in broad daylight down the length of 'The Slot' between the Solomons. Incredibly, the sole sighting of the approaching enemy force - by an RAAF Catalina - was not passed on to Allied leaders. The Americans had split their forces into three groups. Two were guarding the channels on either side of Savo Island. AUSTRALIA in company with CANBERRA, CHICAGO and two destroyers, patrolled the southern channel, while...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Violence and Aggression in Human Behavior Essay

Violence and Aggression in Human Behavior - Essay Example Hate crimes and their etiology will be next to explored. Then domestic violence, examining one theory that explains the power dynamics between couples and how these dynamics cause couples violence. Black men, who are more violent than other groups, will next be explored, in the context of the sociological reasons for their violent behavior. Lastly, the way that violence is learned will be explained. Joran van der Sloot savagely attacks a woman with a baseball bat, leaves her dead body and takes off. Ted Bundy kills a multitude of women over a long period of time. Hitler. Charles Manson. John Wayne Gacy. Jeffrey Dahmer. Jack the Ripper. These are just a few of the infamous names that have become household over the years. What causes these men to kill? Is it sociological, psychological, neurological, or all of the above? Jonathan Pincus, MD and Dorothy Lewis, MD theorize that violent criminals are made through a combination of neurological damage, psychiatric illness and abuse. This underlying pathology is the cause of all kinds of killers – one-time killers, serial killers, rage killers and killers who dissociate. Roy Hazelwood, an FBI profiler, contends that killers are disorganized or organized, the disorganized being the one-time rage killers, the organized being the stereotypical serial killer. These causes point to individualistic, psychological, neurological and abu se causes. There are other factors that cause violence as well, sociological causes. Hate is one of these – when individuals stereotype, scapegoat and dehumanize whole groups of people, hate-related violence ensues. Blacks suffer a disproportionate amount of violence, and the causes for this is sociological as well. Violence is learned through cultural expectations, television exposure and through witnessing violence at home. Domestic violence is caused through complex power dynamics between couples. This paper reviews just some of the theories for all types of